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US Mistreatment towards Iran’s Representatives to the UN: Is Iran Initiating the Third Case against the US at the ICJ?

In recent years, some visa applications for Iran's representatives to the UN have been rejected by the US. Also, Iran's representatives to the UN may only travel between the Iranian U.N. mission, the Iranian U.N. ambassador’s residence, John F. Kennedy airport, and the UN, and they would need authorization to go beyond a 25-mile (40-kilometer) radius (see here). This restriction was even reduced to a 3-mile radius during Trump's Administration (see here). US mistreatment towards Iran's representatives to the UN caused Iran's Foreign Ministry, on 17 January 2021, to officially warn  the US that it will bring a lawsuit with the ICJ against that country if it continues its illegal actions against Iranian diplomats, by the issuance of an official memorandum and the submission of it through the Tehran embassy of Switzerland, which represents US interests in Iran. The US, as the UN's host state, has obligations towards representatives of UN member states under the UN Charter, Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 1946 (hereinafter…

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Defining military activities in outer space: the launching of the Iranian satellite Nour 1

The Iranian satellite, Nour 1, operated by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) was launched on 22 April 2020. The US Space Force (USSF) tracked Nour 1 and its final stage in orbit and added orbital tracking data and orbital parameters for two objects from the launch, the satellite and the rocket third stage, independently confirming the result…

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The Extraterritorial Application of the Fair and Equitable Standard: The 1955 US-Iran Treaty of Amity before the International Court of Justice

Introduction In July 2018, Iran brought claims against the United States (US) before the International Court of Justice (ICJ). The former alleged breaches of certain treaty provisions of the 1955 Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations and Consular Right between the United States of America and Iran (1955 Treaty) because of the latter’s (re)imposition of sanctions…

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Mistakes of Fact When Using Lethal Force in International Law: Part III

  To briefly recapitulate our examination of mistake of fact when using lethal force in various sub-fields of international law: such a doctrine is, in its purely subjective form, black letter law in international criminal law. It is also established (even if not labelled as such) in international human rights law and (somewhat less clearly) in international humanitarian…

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Mistakes of Fact When Using Lethal Force in International Law: Part II

  If a state believes that it is the target of an ongoing or imminent armed attack and uses force to repel that attack, but it later turns out that it was mistaken and that there either was no such attack or that there was no necessity to respond to it, is that use of force in putative…

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