Many thanks to those who suggested answers to my trivia question of earlier this week. I have put my responses as a comment to that post. I now have another question which relates to international lawyers who have held the highest offices of state.
There are quite a number of international lawyers who have gone on to hold cabinet level ministerial positions in national government. In the UK, we recently had the example of Dominic Raab who was Minister for Exiting the European Union in the second half of last year. He spent the early part of his career as a lawyer in the UK Foreign and Commonwealth office, including spending some time as Legal Adviser at the UK Embassy in The Hague. I do not know of another UK cabinet member who had authored articles in international law journals (the Leiden Journal of International Law and Journal of International Criminal Justice) en route to being in the Cabinet.
Elsewhere, there have been a number of Foreign Ministers who had previously been academic or practising international lawyers. A prominent example is Hans Blix, who went on to be Director of the International Atomic Agency, had a PhD in international law from Cambridge University, was an academic international lawyer at the University of Stockholm, before he became Foreign Minister of Sweden from 1978-79. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, who later became UN Secretary-General, had been Professor of International Law at Cairo University (and Visiting Professor in Paris) before becoming Acting Foreign Minister of Egypt also in the late 1970s. A couple of judges of the International Court of Justice have gone on to be Foreign Ministers of their countries. Nabil Elaraby, who had been a Judge at the ICJ (and before that member of the International Law Commission & Legal Adviser to the Egyptian Foreign Ministry) subsequently became Foreign Minister of Egypt for a brief period in 2011, before becoming Secretary-General of the Arab League that same year. Mohammed Bedjaoui, was President of the ICJ before becoming Foreign Minister of Algeria in 2005. Susana Ruiz Cerutti who was recently a candidate for election to the ICJ was briefly Foreign Minister of Argentina after (and before) spells as Legal Adviser to the Foreign Ministry.
These are all cabinet level government officials who previously had a career in international law. My question is whether there has been a head of state or head of government who before becoming such had been an academic or practising international lawyer. One has to define international lawyer though. My definition is that the person must either have published a book or article(s) on public international law; taught international law in a university; or practised public international law by holding a position that involves regularly advising on this branch of law.
To clarify, my question asks for people who were international lawyers before becoming head of state or government. I exclude those who turned to international law after holding these high offices. Sir Geoffrey Palmer QC who was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1989 to 1990 later sat as an ad hoc Judge on the ICJ in the Request for an Examination of the Situation in Accordance with Paragraph 63 of the Court’s Judgment of 20 December 1974 in the Nuclear Tests (New Zealand v. France) Case (1995). After his political career, he wrote extensively on international law (see his SSRN page) on his return to academia, in addition to undertaking other international appointments that involved the application of international law. Though he had an academic career before going into the New Zealand Parliament, I do not think he had written on international law before his political career. One of the answers to my last set of trivia questions was Judge Mohamed Shahabuddeen who had a distinguished career in government in Guyana before embarking on his international judicial career. In addition to being Attorney General and Minister for Legal Affairs, he served as acting Foreign Minister from time to time and was also First Deputy Prime Minister and Vice-President of his country. However, as far as I can tell Judge Shahabuddeen only turned to international law after holding those senior positions in national government. So neither he nor Sir Geoffrey would be suitable answers to my question.
To repeat, the question is this:
Has there been a head of state or head of government who has been an academic or practising international lawyer before holding these high offices?
I will also accept answers which include Vice Presidents, Deputy Prime Ministers or other deputy/vice heads of state or of government.
Answers in the comments box below please!