Every now and again I ask trivia questions relating to international law. Previous questions (and answers) are available here. At the end of this post, I have my latest international law trivia question.
In the oral proceedings in the Whaling Case (Australia v. Japan; New Zealand Intervening) heard by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) this past June, there was a relatively rare instance of experts being called to testify at the ICJ by one party, giving oral testimony and also being cross-examined by counsel for the other party. The International Court of Justice is the “principal judicial organ” of the United Nations (Art. 92, UN Charter). Decisions from the Court are final and without appeal (Art. 60, ICJ Statute). These features mean that the Court is usually looked upon, quite rightly, as the leading judicial authority for statements of international law. However, it is important to realise that the ICJ is not only a final court but is also a court of first instance. Thus, the ICJ is both like a Supreme Court and like a trial court. However, though many cases at the ICJ require an element of fact finding, this is usually done on the basis of documentary evidence. It is not often the case that the fact finding is done on the basis of oral evidence given in Court.
Having scientific experts providing their opinion as testimony at the ICJ is in contrast to some previous cases (Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia)) where parties have included scientific experts as part of their team of counsel rather than as witnesses. In the Pulp Mills case (Argentina. v. Uruguay) (2010), the Court stated:
“Regarding those experts who appeared before it as counsel at the hearings, the Court would have found it more useful had they been presented by the Parties as expert witnesses under Articles 57 and 64 of the Rules of Court, instead of being included as counsel in their respective delegations. The Court indeed considers that those persons who provide evidence before the Court based on their scientific or technical knowledge and on their personal experience should testify before the Court as experts, witnesses or in some cases in both capacities, rather than counsel, so that they may be submitted to questioning by the other party as well as by the Court. [para. 167]
In the Whaling Case, Australia heeded this admonition and called Professor Mangel as an expert on June 27. He was examined in chief by Prof Philippe Sands QC, cross examined by Professor Vaughan Lowe QC and asked other questions by a number of judges of the Court. Now for my question:
In which other cases has oral testimony been given in proceedings at the International Court of Justice and other standing international tribunals dealing with inter-State cases? In particular, in which ICJ or inter-State case or cases has an expert or witness been subjected to cross-examination by the other party?
Answers in the comments box below please!