“For millions of people around the world—development has cost them their homes, their livelihoods, their health, and even their very lives.”
– W. Courtland Robinson
The term development-induced displacement (DID) by itself mirrors two contradictory notions, which rightly represent the dilemma associated with this form of involuntary displacement. On the one hand, “development” has a positive connotation, as it represents the social and economic advancement of a given society, and on the other hand, displacement entails the involuntary removal of people from their homes or residences, which comes with various socio-economic risks. DID, whether or not it is followed by planned resettlement, refers to the involuntary displacement of persons from their homes or habitual residence in order to make a room for development projects. With the proliferation of large scale development projects, particularly in developing and highly populated countries, DID has emerged as one of the prominent causes of internal displacement affecting an estimated number of 15 million people every year (see Heather Randell, 2017).
DID has various risks and impacts, which extends from inherent socio-economic problems to grave human rights violations, on displaced persons. This is especially true when the resettlement programs fail short of equitable standards and adequate procedural guarantees are not accorded. The acquisition of land and eviction that DID entails subject those affected to homelessness, landlessness, loss or decrease of income, and social disintegration, among others. These further create unfavourable living conditions, food insecurity, and increase morbidity and mortality rates. These consequences of DID often extend to a long period resulting in chronic impoverishment of those affected. Overall, as Michael Cernea puts it, “being forcibly ousted from one’s land and habitat by a dam, reservoir or highway is not only immediately disruptive and painful, it is also fraught with serious long term risks of becoming poorer than before displacement, more vulnerable economically, and disintegrated socially” (see Michael Cernea, in Tim Allen (ed), 1996). Having this background in mind, this article seeks to elucidate the social justice concerns DID gives rise to. Read the rest of this entry…