Study of International Law

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Revisiting Carlos Calvo on the 200th Anniversary of his Birth

It was recently the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Argentine diplomat and jurist Carlos Calvo. Despite the fact that he died more than a century ago, his name resonates continuously in international literature through the so-called “Calvo Doctrine” and the “Calvo Clause”. However, his rich legal and political thinking exceeds these two concepts. This short piece attempts to perform a brief journey into the fascinating life and vast work of one of the key figures in the development of modern international law, which can serve as inspiration to face the complex world we live in. The early years of Calvo Carlos Calvo was born in Montevideo, when Uruguay was part of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (now Argentina) on February 12, 1822 (there are different versions about Calvo’s place and date of birth, although this seems to be the correct data according to a certification that appeared in Montevideo, see Pérez Calvo, at p. 21). Calvo’s public life began in 1852 when he was appointed…

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Treatment of Persons Hors de Combat in the Russo-Ukrainian War

Russian military forces have intensified attacks on several fronts in Ukraine since 24 February 2022. Regardless of the Russian government’s justifications in using force against Ukraine, there is an international armed conflict ongoing between Ukraine and Russia, which requires both parties to respect international humanitarian law (IHL). On 2 March 2022, the Ukrainian Special Operations Forces…

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Chasing Global Legal Particles: Some Guesswork about the Nature of Meta’s Oversight Board

There is a contrast between the image of global law as something grand and the difficulty of spotting it, as if it were made of particles whose existence remains conjectural. Not a big surprise, one may say, given that there is no rule of recognition for global law. This post nevertheless tries to detect some such particles using…

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Walking Back Dissents: A Reply to Helfer and Voeten

We see no need to respond to Helfer and Voeten’s reply (Stone Sweet, Sandholtz, and Andenas, 2021), beyond clarifying one major point. The basis of our critique of the Helfer and Voeten article (2020) concerns our inability to confirm the classifications reported in their data. Our focus is on those cases that are most likely…

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A Tale of Three Cities and International Law

Last July, an international organization meeting in an Asian city took historic decisions that will influence the fate of three European cities for years to come. At its 44th session, held in Fuzhou and online, the World Heritage Committee (WHC) stripped Liverpool of its World Heritage List (WHL) title. The same day, Vienna was removed from the…

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