Sources of International Law

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A Study in Contrasting Jurisdictional Methodologies: The International Court of Justice’s February 2021 Judgments in Iran v. USA and Qatar v. UAE

The International Court of Justice issued two significant Decisions on Jurisdiction in early February: its 3 February 2021 Judgment in Iran v. United States (where the Court accepted jurisdiction over a dispute in which Iran alleged that the United States breached the 1955 Treaty of Amity between these two States) [hereafter, Iran v. US Judgment on Preliminary Objections], and the 4 February 2021 Judgment in Qatar v. United Arab Emirates (UAE) (where the Court declined jurisdiction over a dispute in which Qatar alleged that the United Arab Emirates breached the Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination) [hereafter, Qatar v. UAE Judgment on Preliminary Objections].  The Court voted overwhelmingly to reject the United States' preliminary objections (on three objections, unanimously, and on three other objections, by a vote of 15 to 1) in Iran v. United States (para. 114 of the Iran v. US Judgment), but voted on a more narrow majority to accept the UAE's two preliminary objections (by 11 votes to 6) in Qatar v. UAE (para. 115 of the Qatar v. UAE Judgment).

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Old Habits Die Hard: Applying Existing International Law in Cyberspace and Beyond

In the past few years, a growing number of states have expressed their official positions on the applicability of international law in cyberspace. Most recently, New Zealand and Israel shared their own views on the topic to beef up the crowd. Initiatives of this kind are welcome and contribute to the gradual clarification of the extent…

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Israel’s Cautious Perspective on International Law in Cyberspace: Part II (jus ad bellum and jus in bello)

In Part I of this series, I assessed Israel’s approach to the identification and interpretation of international law in the cyber context, as set forth in an important virtual speech by Israel’s Deputy Attorney General for International Law, Dr. Roy Schöndorf, at the “Disruptive Technologies and International Law” conference hosted by the US Naval War College’s…

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Israel’s Cautious Perspective on International Law in Cyberspace: Part I (Methodology and General International Law)

Last week, Israel’s Deputy Attorney General for International Law, Dr. Roy Schöndorf, delivered an important virtual speech on his nation’s positions regarding the application of international law in cyberspace at the “Disruptive Technologies and International Law” conference hosted by the US Naval War College’s Stockton Center for International Law. The sophisticated presentation described…

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Israel’s perspective on Key Legal and Practical Issues Concerning the Application of International Law to Cyber Operations

Transcript of the keynote speech delivered by Israeli Deputy Attorney General (International Law), Dr. Roy Schöndorf, on 8 December, 2020 at the US Naval War College's event on "Disruptive Technologies and International Law".* I would like to present, here today, Israel's perspective on key aspects of the application of international law in connection…

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