Occupation

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How does the classification of armed conflict impact the protection of freshwater in Gaza?

On October 7, 2023, Hamas launched ‘‘Operation Al-Aqsa Flood’’ – an unprecedented attack on Israel from Gaza. Israel responded with ‘‘Operation Swords of Iron’’, aiming to remove hostile forces. Over the weeks, the Israel-Hamas conflict has escalated, leading to severe implications for access to freshwater in Gaza. Israel’s control over essential supplies, including those vital for water treatment, exacerbates the already dire freshwater situation in Gaza. Israeli’s Defense minister announces ‘‘complete siege’’ of Gaza, cutting off food, electricity, fuel, or water. Because of the lack of water supply, hospitals in Gaza face critical water shortages, resulting in deteriorating sanitary conditions and a heightened risk of infections. Even before the conflict, 90% of the population lacked direct access to clean water (A/HRC/48/43, para. 47), with 96% of Gaza’s water considered unsafe. The scarcity of clean water has far-reaching and devastating consequences and elevates the risk of waterborne diseases, exacerbates poor hygiene conditions in overcrowded makeshift shelters…

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To report or not to report GHG emissions in occupied territories. A practical approach for having a more accurate world count of global GHG emissions.

Climate change is a global environmental problem that needs the participation and cooperation of all States to effectively protect the Earth’s climate system for present and future generations. Despite the high number of States Parties that the UN climate change regime has, the regime is silent about who should report the green-house gases (GHG) emissions in occupied…

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Applying International Environmental Law Conventions in Occupied Territory: The Azerbaijan v. Armenia Case under the Bern Convention

Introduction  On 18 January 2023, Azerbaijan announced that it had launched against Armenia an inter-state case under the dispute settlement provision in the 1979 Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).  Azerbaijan notified the Bern Convention Secretariat of the dispute by letter on 27 March 2023, stating that…

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Will history repeat itself? Anticipating the ICJ advisory opinion on the legal status of Israel’s occupation and its consequences

The Request for Advisory Opinion On 30 December 2022 the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution A/RES/77/247, containing the annual indictment of Israeli practices in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza. In addition, the resolution contains one novelty, a request addressed to the ICJ to render an Advisory Opinion on the following…

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Occupation of Minds: IHL Response to Russian Education Policies in the Occupied Ukrainian Territories

Into the eighth month of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russia has rushed to implement its plan to annex and assimilate newly occupied southern-eastern regions of Ukraine via sham referenda and attempted absorption of territories through respective domestic laws. The areas in question include parts of the Kherson, Zaporizhzhia, Donetsk and…

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