Freedom of Expression

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Tackling Football-Related Online Hate Speech: The Role of International Human Rights Law: Part II

Part II: The UK’s response to football-related online hate speech In the first part of this post, we argued that the various expressions of online racial hatred directed at England’s black football players following the country’s defeat in the recent European Championship final, as well as earlier instances of football-related online racial abuse, fall under different categories of hate speech. These are: 1) prohibited speech, under Articles 20(2) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and Article 4 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD); 2) limited speech, under Article 19(3) ICCPR; and 3) protected speech, under Article 19(2) ICCPR. In this part of the post, we assess whether the UK has done enough to meet its obligations to prevent, combat, condemn, and provide redress for such forms of racial hatred and discrimination, in line with Article 20 ICCPR and Articles 4, 6 and 7 ICERD, whilst respecting individuals’ right to freedom of expression under Article 19(2)-(3) ICCPR. In our view, the answer…

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Tackling Football-Related Online Hate Speech: The Role of International Human Rights Law: Part I

Part I – A pattern of online racist speech Introduction When Marcus Rashford, Jadon Sancho and Bukayo Saka missed crucial penalties to seal England’s defeat to Italy in the final of the European Championships, a dread began to consume many football fans as well as less enthusiastic observers. This dread was much darker than…

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A Dangerous Convergence: The Inevitability of Mass Surveillance in European Jurisprudence

Recent Grand Chamber judgments in Big Brother Watch and Others v. United Kingdom and Centrum för Rättvisa v. Sweden held that some aspects of the UK’s and Sweden’s domestic surveillance regimes violated Articles 8 and 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (“ECHR”). Despite the findings of violation…

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The Oxford Statement on International Law Protections in Cyberspace: The Regulation of Information Operations and Activities

The Internet has allowed the dissemination of content across the globe in a matter of seconds. Recommendation algorithms, found in social media platforms and search engines, have also dangerously amplified the reach of false, misleading, and violent content (see here, here, and here). Because they are geared towards…

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The Grand Normalization of Mass Surveillance: ECtHR Grand Chamber Judgments in Big Brother Watch and Centrum för rättvisa

Yesterday the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights delivered its most important judgments on electronic mass surveillance (or bulk interception) post-Snowden: Big Brother Watch and Others v. the United Kingdom, nos. 58170/13 etc and Centrum för rättvisa v. Sweden, no.

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