Cyber Warfare

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Cyber Responses “By The Numbers” in International Law

According to open source reports, the Obama administration is considering how to retaliate against China for hacks into the US government’s Office of Personnel (OPM). Although it has hesitated to openly pin the rose on China, the reports raise questions as to how it might respond consistent with international law. The issue of responses to harmful cyber operations has generated a fair degree of rather confused dialogue among politicians, pundits and the public. In the aftermath of, inter alia, the Sony hack and the OPM incident, it might be useful to take a by-the-numbers look at the international law governing responses to harmful cyber operations. The International Group of Experts that prepared the 2013 Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare under the auspices of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence dealt with the topic briefly. A follow-on project, “Tallinn 2.0,” is presently underway to examine these issues in greater depth. As director for both projects, I have found the most useful lesson to…

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The Tallinn Manual on the International Law applicable to Cyber Warfare

Liis Vihul is the Tallinn Manual Project Manager, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Tallinn, Estonia. Although scholars began to assess how international law applies in the cyber context during the late 1990s, it was not until the 2007 cyber operations directed at Estonia that the international community became fully sensitised to the subject. For the first…

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Remote Attack and the Law

Dr Bill Boothby, the former Deputy Director of Legal Services for the Royal Air Force, published through OUP his doctoral thesis on Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict in 2009; he has now published his second book, again through OUP, on The Law of Targeting. This post…

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