Home Articles posted by Philip Allott

European Union 2: A Revolutionary Response to a British Coup d’état

Published on September 8, 2016        Author: 

The antipathy towards the European Union reflected in the British Referendum of 23 June 2016 is shared by many people across the whole of Europe. As Jürgen Habermas has said: “the British vote also reflects some of the general state of crisis in the EU and its member states”. (Die Zeit, July 12, 2016.)

An unexpected moment of further European disintegration offers a unique opportunity to make the unloved EU into what it could be. The citizens of Europe should force the governments of Europe to make possible a European Union 2, an enterprise that a majority of British people might support, even if they were still not able to love it.

We are living through a time of exceptional disorder and danger throughout the world. A very bad time is a good time to plan a better future. In the dark days of the Second World War, governments were already planning new social security systems, new education systems, new public health systems, a new world financial system, and a United Nations to replace the League of Nations.

There are realistic principles underlying a project of European Union. It can be a close partnership of independent nations pursuing their unique and precious destinies, but seeking also the huge gains that come from acting together to serve a common interest. Their national interest contains also the common interest that they share.

Such a partnership is a sharing of the power of 500 million people. We have a common interest in responding effectively to a world that threatens our survival and prosperity, politically and economically and culturally, and even our physical survival.

But we also share a special responsibility to help to make the present chaotic and dangerous world into a better world. It is something that Europe owes to the world, a world that is very much the world that Europe made, for better and for worse. Read the rest of this entry…

Filed under: EJIL Analysis, European Union

The Idealist’s Dilemma: Re-Imagining International Society

Published on June 9, 2014        Author: 

There has never been a better time to be an international lawyer.   International Law is at last emerging as a sophisticated legal system, in an international society experiencing take-off – to borrow two metaphors from development economics.

International Law is living its own 1860’s.   From the 1860’s, especially in European countries and the United States, the forms of law multiplied prolifically to respond to the vastly greater complexity and energy of society.   Legal fragmentation and institutional innovation were an expression of self-transforming social vitality – as they are now in the emerging international society.

International lawyers are the most privileged of all lawyers.  International Law is the law of all laws, the law of the whole human world.  International lawyers are front and centre in the drama of making the new international society.

But there’s something that greatly limits the part we can play in the project of making the law of the new international society.   The international world suffers from a grotesque poverty of philosophy.  That phrase – ‘poverty of philosophy’– was used by Karl Marx in 1847 to criticise the situation at the level of national society.

Our predecessors at the national level had the great advantage that they could use thirty centuries of intense thought about the forms of law and order required for the good life lived in a good society.

The grotesque poverty of philosophy at the international level means that the international world has one big idea.   Everything else is a deduction from that one big idea.

The one big idea is that the international world is not a social phenomenon but an anomalous excrescence from national societies, an exogenous unsocial dependent reality, isolated from the vast intellectual superstructure required for the survival and prospering of national society.

Re-imagining the one big idea of the international world is an exciting challenge for those of us who think for a living.   It is an exciting challenge for international lawyers.   And it is a particularly delightful challenge for those of us who are philosophical idealists.    Read the rest of this entry…

Comments Off on The Idealist’s Dilemma: Re-Imagining International Society

Comments on Jean d’Aspremont, Formalism and the Sources of International Law. A Theory of the Ascertainment of Legal Rules

Published on December 12, 2012        Author: 

Jean d’Aspremont’s book evokes subliminally two recurring nightmares – one social, one intellectual. Socially, it reminds us of the failure of law to secure its proper place in international society. Intellectually, it reminds us of the part played by the modern university in the disempowering of the human mind.

The conventions of monograph-writing require that the author survey the territory in which he or she intends to plant something new – employed, as John Locke modestly said of himself, ‘as an under-labourer in clearing the ground a little, and removing some of the rubbish that lies in the way of knowledge’.  In fact, as d’Aspremont himself notes, most self-conscious intellectual innovators, before the advent of the modern university, did not devote much explicit effort to disposing of the writings of their predecessors.  Locke himself certainly did not do so, either in the Essay or the Two Treatises.

In the present case, ‘clearing the ground a little’ produces a mountain of footnotes listing hundreds of writings expressing, and endlessly recycling, every conceivable view, and many inconceivable views, about the essence of International Law, or its lack of an essence. It requires the author to sift through the output of an industrial-scale intellectual effort, to sort out the countless academic sects (many of them blessed with brand-names ending in -ism), and to locate them in relation to each other.  And it requires him to perform the impossible – but academically expected – task of making sober judgments about their relative merits.

And, all the while, the wicked world goes on its merry way to ruin. Why would anyone choose to write creatively and intelligently about the philosophy of International Law? They are unlikely to be heard by those who exercise international public power – politicians, diplomats, civil servants, intergovernmental officials, international judges and arbitrators, legal practitioners – the international ruling class, a self-satisfied and self-regarding conspiracy, many of whose members have the crudest ideas about the nature of law, and many of whose members relentlessly abuse public power, national and international.

It is important to understand two things.  Holders of public power are the product of ideas, ideas that they did not invent.  Holders of public power use other people’s ideas as instruments of power.  If a more or less abstract idea might be useful to them, they will appropriate it – ideas of religion or philosophy or morality or political theory or natural science or human psychology – not only to justify their possession of power but also to exercise that power more efficiently. Words are power.  Words are weapons.  The power of the powerful includes the power to incorporate ideas into the language of power.

I won’t comment in detail on the intricacies of d’Aspremont’s exposition.  But I must say that I would differ from some of his accounts and judgments of legal philosophies and theoretical positions with which I am myself familiar.   (I’m sorry that he devotes respectful attention to Herbert Hart and Ludwig Wittgenstein – both of them being of minimal continuing intellectual significance.)   For me, the book is important at a more general level.   The important question is – what general lessons can we learn from d’Aspremont’s heroic work of synthesis and analysis?

Read the rest of this entry…

Comments Off on Comments on Jean d’Aspremont, Formalism and the Sources of International Law. A Theory of the Ascertainment of Legal Rules