Kubo Mačák



Dr Kubo Mačák is Professor of International Law at the University of Exeter, United Kingdom. Kubo is the author of the book Internationalized Armed Conflicts in International Law (Oxford University Press 2018) and of multiple articles in peer-reviewed journals including the International Review of the Red Cross, the Journal of Cyber Policy, and the Journal of Conflict and Security Law. Kubo is also the General Editor of the Cyber Law Toolkit, an interactive online resource on the international law of cyber operations. Between 2019 and 2023, he served as a legal adviser at the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva.

Recently Published

Nothing is certain but death and taxes (unless you get hacked): An international law perspective on Ukraine’s cyber attack against Russia’s Federal Tax Service

Talk about bad timing. This week, all international lawyers with a little more than passing interest in all things cyber have their eyes on – or are themselves in – New York. That’s because the UN “Cyber OEWG”, a shorthand for an open-ended working group with a much longer name, is in session to discuss,…

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Strengthening the rule of law in time of war: An IHL perspective on the present and future of the Articles on State Responsibility

International humanitarian law is one of the oldest areas of international law. As such, it was unsurprisingly a key source for the International Law Commission in its work on the Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (hereafter ‘Articles’). This is apparent, among other things, from the frequent references to IHL in Special Rapporteur Crawford’s…

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Even ‘cyber wars’ have limits. But what if they didn’t?

In today’s digitalizing world, States and non-State armed groups increasingly employ cyber capabilities in their military operations, and their use is likely to grow. Still, there is a debate – most prominently in the framework of the two multilateral processes under the auspices of the United Nations – as to how the existing international legal frameworks apply to…

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