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Do We Need Another Database of International Law Documents?

Published on March 12, 2018        Author: , and

Online databases and repositories appear to be the new golden calf of law publishers which have invested a lot of money in these new academic products. Some publishers secured an early lead position in this market while others are now catching up. From the perspective of the academics that contribute to the developments of such tools, the market still appears to be in development and below saturation. Yet, it cannot be excluded that the continued development of databases ends up cannibalizing publishers’ other, more traditional, products, such as reference books and law reports. This is however a debate for another day. For now, it suffices to note that users — whether students, researchers, practitioners — seem to value international law databases; at least as long as their institution can afford to provide them with access thereto.

It is against this backdrop that the recent launch of Oxford International Organizations (OXIO) – which was celebrated on the occasion of a well attended event hosted by the Graduate Institute in Geneva – raises the question of what epistemic and practical gaps which this new database of documents and annotations specifically dedicated to international organizations can potentially fill. This is why, in the following paragraphs, we inquire into some of the disciplinary assumptions upon which the development of such a product rests, especially in relation to the law of international organizations (1), as well as the concrete benefits which users can draw from OXIO (2).

Consolidating the Law of International Organizations? Read the rest of this entry…

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Excessive Multilingualism in EU Trade Agreements

The legal protection of multilingualism is an important principle and an indispensable guarantee for the functioning of the institutions of the European Union (EU) as well as for their relationships with EU citizens. This is not only evidenced by Article 22 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, which obligates the Union to respect linguistic diversity. Beyond that, legally protecting multilingualism is, as the European Parliament stated, “not a matter of communication only, but also a question of democratic legitimacy towards citizens and respect for the cultural diversity of the Member States. It affects the way in which EU legislation is drafted and interpreted”.

Multilingualism is also well established in the EU Treaties themselves, concluded between the Member States in 24 equally authentic languages (Article 55 TEU), which can be interpreted authoritatively by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) whenever necessary.

The practice of the European Union is quite similar with regard to treaties concluded with non-Member States. In particular, several free trade agreements (FTAs) concluded or negotiated with such states have been drawn up in no less than 23 or 24 equally authentic languages. Read the rest of this entry…

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EJIL Debate. A Reply to Thirlway: I am not Thinking From the Bench

Published on January 16, 2018        Author: 

Being the object of a public rebuttal in an highly visible on-line blog platform by a prominent author like Professor Thirlway probably constitutes the most generous reward one can receive for “burning the midnight oil“. This also provides a fate for one’s work that is much better than the oblivion and indifference to which most of scholarly outputs are condemned in today’s academic pathologically prolific scene. This is why I could not be more grateful to Professor Thirlway for his comments on my article. Our repeated public debates these last years (for another example, see here) remind me that we share many areas of interest (sources, international dispute settlement, responsibility, etc) but also confirm that our views are simply — and thankfully — irreconcilable. In this short reaction, I want to respectfully show that our views diverge on the structure of legal argumentation related to sources and interpretation (1) as well as on the purpose of international legal scholarship (2).

Saving the Court through opposability

The reading of the judgment of the International Court of Justice (hereafter ICJ or the Court) in the Whaling in the Antarctic case which I have articulated in the European Journal of International Law and with which Professor Thirlway takes issue can be summarized as follows: the Court blurred the lines between the doctrine of sources and the doctrine of interpretation (and the modes of legal argumentation associated with each of them) by calibrating the interpretive value of IWC resolutions for the sake of interpreting the notion of ‘scientific approach’ in Article VIII of the Whaling Convention on the basis of Japan’s assent to those resolutions. Read the rest of this entry…


Readings 2016: The Odds Are There to Beat

Published on December 27, 2016        Author: 

Editor’s Note: As in previous years, EJIL’s Book Review Editor, Isabel Feichtner, invited our Board members to reflect on the books that have had a significant impact on them this year. In the following days we will present some selections here on EJIL:Talk! They include books, not necessarily published in 2016, but read or reread this year, and found inspiring or enjoyable. These editors’ choices are not intended to be a prize in disguise, but rather are personalized accounts of the reading experiences of our Board members.  Today we have Jean d’Aspremont’s selection.

Every year, when we as Editors of EJIL conduct the retrospective (and somewhat introspective) exercise of looking back at the books we have read over the previous 12 months, I always find myself bewildered by the imbalance between the rather modest amount of books I have perused and the huge number of articles I have thoroughly digested. It seems that, in my own practice of consuming legal scholarship, the number of pages of legal literature I read in scholarly books is not commensurate with the substantially higher number of pages of journal articles. Although I am short of empirical data relating to such patterns of behaviour, I surmise that this may be a widespread reading practice among international lawyers. My feeling is that international lawyers read articles – not to mention blog posts and tweets – by the hundreds while seriously reading only a dozen books every year. This disproportion is not alleviated by the fact, already highlighted by Sarah Nouwen last year that we actually read very few books cover to cover.

This imbalance warrants some attention as I do not think that international lawyers’ substantially higher consumption of article-based legal scholarship over book-based literature can be explained solely by size. After all, many books nowadays are rather thin – which, in some respects, is a good thing! – and many articles, especially in the Anglo-American tradition, are rather lengthy – which, in some other respects, is regrettable. I also suspect that the imbalance between books and articles in the reading practice of international lawyers has not always been so great. I would guess that there were times when the legal literature read by international lawyers was more or less evenly spread between books and journal articles, not to mention the pre-periodical era when scholarship was exclusively found in books. Read the rest of this entry…

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EJIL Editors’ Choice of Books 2015: Jean d’Aspremont

Published on February 24, 2016        Author: 

For all of those scholars cultivating a generalist expertise of a topic, the contents of each year’s readings can vary dramatically. For them, looking back at such readings can prove very illuminating as it can lay bare huge fluctuations in the literary and scholarly sources that serve as inspiration. In contrast to the very doctrinal works I read and reported on last year, my readings of the last 12 months have been primarily devoted to theoretical materials meant to feed into my work on the structure of legal argumentation as well as the professionalization of international law. This may explain why none of the books I list here qualifies as international legal scholarship properly so-called. Yet, in the light of the insights I gained from them, I have come to consider these books as ‘must reads’ for any generalist international lawyer interested in looking beyond the mere mechanical deployment of the formal modes of legal reasoning imposed by the discipline. These also are books that are one click away for international lawyers in wealthy parts of the world as they are published by mainstream publishers and available in most online bookstores.

Before sketching out their content, an observation is warranted on the extent to which not only the selection of our readings but also reading itself is prejudiced by the works and the projects we have in the making. What we make of what we read is very much contingent on what we expect from such materials and even more on what we hope to find therein. In this sense, when we read for scholarly purposes, we turn ourselves into hungry hunters with some pre-reflective preferences or expectations about the type of meat we want to bring home – and, thus, the type of insights we want to present in our own scholarship. The risk is thus that our prey ends up being embellished or corrupted by those pre-reflective preferences or expectations. This is why our reading is, to a large extent, performative as it constitutes the insights we gather from the materials from which we draw inspiration. This very elementary observation explains why, for each of the books mentioned below, I take pains to say a few words about my pre-reflective preferences at the moment of reading – that is, the context in which the reading was done. It may explain why colleagues, in a different context and in relation to different scholarly projects, may have made something radically different of these texts. It should finally be highlighted that my listing of the following books does not entail any value judgment about the intrinsic merit of the theses defended therein, let alone their direct transposability to international legal debates. My choices for this year should more simply be read as refreshing calls to shed some common assumptions found in international legal scholarship. Read the rest of this entry…

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Managing Change in International Law and the Dream of the Managerialist International Lawyer

Published on September 25, 2015        Author: 

This post is a reaction to an ESIL Reflection written by Ramses Wessel and Monika Ambrus and entitled Between Pragmatism and Predictability: Temporariness in International Law. Their piece originates in an impressive symposium on the topic that has been published in the Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (see here)

1. Thinking of international law in managerialist terms

The 19th century idealist-intellectual international lawyer was murdered by his doctrinal-formalist counterpart who rose to prominence at the beginning of the 20th century. It did not come as a surprise that the doctrinal-formalist would also soon succumb, not only to his own weight and self-confidence, but also to the blows of the next hegemon, i.e. the managerialist international lawyer who thinks that international lawyers managing the world can no longer afford overly formal and sophisticated structures of argumentation. Interestingly, the murder of the doctrinal-formalist international lawyer by the managerialist international lawyer was condoned by his peers who had grown averse to the false necessities of doctrinal constructions and formal modes of legal reasoning. This is why the managerialist international lawyer was quickly welcomed and celebrated as the messianic saviour of a profession that had ceased to hope in its ability to make demands on the world.

The murder of the doctrinal-formalist international lawyer by the managerialist international lawyer is however not the end of the story of 20th century international legal thought. Indeed, the night after the opulent celebration of his conquest, the managerialist international lawyer had a dream. He dreamed that he would not only manage the world through international law but also the time of that world. In his dream, managing time also meant managing change. And managing change required self-reactive legal institutions and modes of reasoning to allow his managerial project to be carried out whatever happens outside his palace. Read the rest of this entry…

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International Law’s Empirically Generated Justice: Natural Law Theory Reinvented

Published on June 2, 2015        Author: 

The weight of any argument or theory that is empirically grounded is unparalleled. In contemporary legal discourses, no argument or theory fares better than an empirical one, that is when its foundations can be validated by facts, practices, and existing institutional arrangements – which are, on that occasion, considered self-sustaining. This is what is called empiricism. International lawyers have long understood the argumentative convenience of empiricism, which has accordingly been thriving in contemporary international legal thought. Only international lawyers amenable to the natural law tradition have continued to prefer to ground legal argumentation in normative and theoretical postulates and have played down the foundational role of facts, practices, and existing institutional arrangements which, in their view, cannot be self-sustaining. It is accordingly no surprise that the resilient debates between mainstream empiricists and moralists have been revolving around the validating role of these facts, practices and institutional arrangements.

This dichotomous image of the structure of international legal argumentation is challenged by The Thin Justice of International Law (hereafter TJIL) written by Professor Steven Ratner. Indeed, in this book, he offers us an elegant refinement of the natural law tradition in international law by seeking to bridge the abovementioned divide between empiricists and moralists in international legal thought. It will however be argued in the following paragraphs that the most innovative aspect of TJIL does not lie with the stylish blend of empiricism and morality it relies on but rather with the epistemic union between international lawyers and moral philosophers which it calls for.

Read the rest of this entry…

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Editor’s Book Choices: Jean d’Aspremont

Published on December 24, 2014        Author: 

Looking back at one’s readings over the last 12 months is a rather humbling exercise. We, international legal scholars, are supposed to be reading all the time, at least during these moments miraculously rescued from teaching, management and administration. In practice, even in these precious reading and reflection periods we do not properly read. Too often we skim rather than read. Too often we zero in on some carefully selected chapters or sections of books and form our opinions on the basis of rather limited samples. Too often we navigate books according to our research agenda (after having picked them in a similar way). The main explanation for this perennial reading attitude is that we, international legal scholars, read functionally, i.e. with a specific argument or project in mind. Albeit conducive to short-term efficiency and productivity, this functionalist approach to reading is obviously regrettable. Indeed, it rarely allows us to let our thoughts dawdle in the imaginary space created by the thoughts of others. But this is not the saddest part of the story. Running from one deadline to the other, we, international legal scholars, may even come to forget what we have read and only remember the argument or the project that our readings served. This is why looking back at one’s past year’s reading can make one feel like a marathoner who, on the finishing line, relishes his achievement but who, out of breath, is completely oblivious about the landscape that unfolded during the race. It is against the backdrop of such functional reading patterns of present day academia and the correlative oblivion that I let my choice be guided by three memorable traits or mindsets which I ascribe to some of the authors whose books I read in 2014: modesty, courage and inquisitiveness. It is the memory of these distinct traits or mindsets that revives my recollection of three specific books which I read thoroughly during the last 12 months. The following choice is certainly not meant as a personal charts or quality ranking. These three books are simply three works which did not leave me indifferent. That a book creates a feeling or an emotion with its reader is, in my view, a good sign. It is maybe the best that a book can ever achieve and indifference is probably the most tragic fate for a book, let alone a scholarly book.

Modesty: James Crawford’s State Responsibility – The General Part was published in 2013 but it took me until mid-2014 to seriously read it. It reads like a “synthesis” of the author’s past accounts of the conceptual and functional variations of the law of responsibility. This historical exposition is shrewdly constructed as to vindicate the author’s own vision of the doctrine in the framework of the International Law Commission’s work on State Responsibility which is in turn presented as a “modern synthesis” in which all the visions of the old Masters have coalesced. Read the rest of this entry…

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Democracy and International Law according to Russell Buchan: Prescribing under the Guise of Explaining?

Published on November 17, 2014        Author: 

Russell Buchan’s Lieber Prize-winning book entitled International Law and the Construction of the Liberal Peace (hereafter The Construction of the Liberal Peace) rests on a courageous enterprise. Indeed, it takes a lot of courage, especially given the dominant cynical mindset to which many international lawyers have succumbed, to seek to vindicate the democratic peace theory and, with it, the democratic legitimacy thesis. Buchan’s The Construction of the Liberal Peace also stands out for being elegantly written, aesthetically designed and conceptually strong as well as for denoting an impressive knowledge of international law and international relations theory.

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Customary International Law as a Dance Floor: Part II

Published on April 15, 2014        Author: 

The first part of this blog post commended the self-restraint of the ILC Special Rapporteur on the identification of customary international law. It simultaneously argued that the work of the ILC, somewhat paradoxically, laid bare a formidable emancipatory fervour at play outside the Palais des Nations. It is as if the intellectual prison of custom was gradually being turned into a large dance floor where (almost) everything goes. The following observations substantiate that claim and shed light on some of the consequences of this ongoing revelling.

Hunting (and finding) practice everywhere

It has long been accepted that the myth of induction in the theory of customary international law was more difficult to uphold in relation to opinio juris. This is why the subjective element has always been the object of the most severe criticisms or reservations. Yet, international legal scholars have started to realise that the myth of induction is not less difficult to vindicate in connection to the objective element, i.e. practice. As the Nicaragua decision famously taught us, how can one possibly ascertain the unascertainable, that is an intangible practice of abstention? Since the great majority of rules of international law are of a prohibitive character, the establishment of customary international law very often requires a speculative venture into nothingness. Confronted with this overdue realisation that practice – especially with respect to prohibitive rules – was not more easily captured inductively than opinio juris, international lawyers have been forced to resort to all new sorts of nets and traps to hunt and capture practice where there was none.

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