Cedric Ryngaert


Cedric Ryngaert is Professor of Public International Law at Utrecht University. He is a general international lawyer whose research interests mainly concern the law of jurisdiction, immunities, non-state actors, and international organizations.

Recently Published

Torts in Dutch Foreign Relations: Choice of Law Issues

Uglješa Grušić’s Torts in UK Foreign Relations is an impressive work discussing the relevance of private international law for tortious claims arising out of the external exercise of British executive authority. As I have no expertise in UK or English law, I will engage with Uglješa’s work from a comparative law perspective. In particular, I…

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Secondary Sanctions: A Weapon out of Control? Part III: Looking beyond the WTO – possible avenues to raise a Judicial Challenge against Secondary Sanctions

Judicial remedies at the domestic and international level In our two previous posts we examined the legality of secondary sanctions in light of customary law on the exercise of State jurisdiction, on the one end (here), and conventional law, specifically the IMF Articles of Agreement, on the other hand (here). Having established that, depending…

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Secondary Sanctions: A Weapon Out of Control? Part II: The legality of secondary sanctions under conventional law and the IMF’s tacit approval procedure for payment restrictions inspired by security concerns

The legality of so-called ‘non-UN’ or ‘autonomous’ sanctions has been amply debated in recent years. Discussion has arisen, for instance, on their compliance with the principle of non-intervention (see here), or their potential qualification as ‘third-party countermeasures’ (see e.g. here and here). The legal challenges are further compounded when…

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