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A general obligation of due diligence in international law?

Recently, arguments have emerged that a universal source exists from which it is automatically possible to derive binding due diligence obligations for states in relation to all forms…

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Did the US Stay “Well Below the Threshold of War” With its June Cyberattack on Iran?

On 20 June 2019, the United States conducted a major cyberattack against Iran in response to Iran’s (alleged) attacks on oil tankers in the Hormuz Strait and the…

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Un-caging the Bear? A Case Study in Cyber Opinio Juris and Unintended Consequences

On October 4, the United Kingdom’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), a division of the GCHQ, issued a news release attributing multiple cyber campaigns to Russia’s military…

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The NotPetya Cyber Operation as a Case Study of International Law

The recent “NotPetya” cyber-operation illustrates the complexity of applying international law to factually ambiguous cyber scenarios. Manifestations of NotPetya began to surface on 27 June when a major…

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