Maya Brehm is a researcher in weapons law at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights (ADH) and a consultant with Article 36 and PAX. Her recent work focuses on the humanitarian impact of explosive weapon use in populated areas and on framing the policy debate on autonomous weapons systems.
In a recently published report, Human Rights Watch (HRW) documents harm to civilians from the use of 122mm Grad rockets apparently fired by Ukrainian government forces and pro-government militias into Donetsk and its suburbs. In four attacks investigated by HRW at least 16 civilians were killed and many more wounded. According to HRW insurgent forces also recently used Grad rockets. The image below from HRW shows attacks in and around Donetsk (click to enlarge). The organization has also posted a video online presenting its findings.
The problem with Grad rockets
Grad rockets are unguided rockets fired from a multiple-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) that can deliver up to 40 rockets within a very short time to a range of 20 kilometers. Like other unguided, indirect fire weapons, Grad rockets are considered ‘area weapons’, suited for attacks against targets of significant dimensions, because due to ballistic and other factors, the area over which the rockets can spread out is relatively wide.
The dimension of the area affected by a rocket attack (the area of potential impact of the rockets combined with the blast/fragmentation zones of the individual rockets) is a function of many variables, including fuzing, ballistic and firing technique-related factors. As that area can be very wide, the use of Grad rockets in populated areas carries a high risk of harm to civilians. Read the rest of this entry…