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Comments on Sergio Puig’s ‘Social Capital in the Arbitration Market’

Published on September 23, 2014        Author: 

Tom SchultzThomas Schultz is a Reader in Commercial Law in the Dickson Poon School of Law at King’s College London and a Swiss National Science Foundation Research Professor in the International Law Department at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva. He is also the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of International Dispute Settlement (Oxford University Press).

Professor Puig’s article ‘Social Capital in the Arbitration Market’ is a quite wonderful contribution to a number of things: our understanding of the dynamics of investment arbitration, the literature on arbitrator appointments, the methodological diversification of studies in international law, and certainly a few more. And it brings us rather convincing evidence, in a field where claims and representations (not to speak of copious discussions of what other people happen to have said) are more readily found than data and studies to substantiate claims. It is, in other words, intellectually edifying. The experimental design is well done, the plan well executed and the findings credible. In this, it is intellectually responsive to developments in the social sciences and the humanities. We don’t even need a mood-elevating metaphor to set great store by this sort of works, and this work in particular. (Incidentally, the study is also a formidable ‘who’s who in investment arbitration’, which undoubtedly will make for welcome entertainment in certain circles.)

A few small methodological points would probably deserve more discussion. (I said ‘would deserve’, not ‘would have deserved’: the article is long enough as it is and this is a law journal after all.) For instance, the author says that ‘The network analysis advanced in this article relies upon displayed preferences by the appointing entity (litigation parties, arbitrators, and the institution) to provide a larger picture of the network’s aggregate topology.’ But how do we know the preferences of the appointing entity? Right, by looking at appointments. But do effective appointments really tell us what the preferences are? What if individuals, who are the preferred choices of the appointing entity, refuse an appointment, and the appointing entity has to turn to their second or third choice? Never happens. Well… Actually, could such situations be statistically relevant?

Another methodological point: Figure 8 is puzzling. Not puzzling as in ‘probably wrong’. Puzzling as in ‘how come’? Here’s the author’s accompanying notes: “Figure 8 shows how, despite the fact that most ICSID cases were registered in the last 10 years, most ‘power-brokers’ or those arbitrators at the top of the profession entered the network in or prior to 2004.” In other words, the mid-2000s is the moment when you see the network effects. Why? Why did the network stabilise at that point in time? The network seems to have acquired self-organisational elements at that point in time, but, again, why then? Any hypothesis? Just happenstance? Just puzzling.

Beyond methodological considerations, we may also wonder–and perhaps the author wants to elaborate on this–why, in fact, it is a bad thing that a small number of arbitrators decide a great number of cases. Read the rest of this entry…

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Social Capital in the Arbitration Market

Published on September 22, 2014        Author: 

sergio puig-picDr. Sergio Puig is an Associate Professor of Law at the University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law.

I am grateful to Professor Weiler, the editors of EJIL and the organizers of EJIL: Talk! for hosting the discussion of my article. I am privileged to have Daphna Kapeliuk, Michael Waibel, and Thomas Schultz as collaborators in this endeavor.  This is a great opportunity to engage with wonderful scholars in the field of international law, all of whom have produced very interesting and inspiring empirically-based research in the field. Below I summarize the methodology and main arguments of this piece.

In this modest contribution, I try to bring together different scholarly traditions. In framing the question, I note that scholars with different academic traditions have provided diverse and, at points, conflicting explanations regarding why arbitration professionals are such a seemingly small and homogenous group in terms of gender, national origin and educational background. In this article, I seek to empirically assess this observation and to explore why this may be happening. Given the limited access to the record of appointments under most arbitration facilities, I used the data of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). In spite of critiques regarding ICSID’s practices with respect to transparency, it is the sole arbitration institution to publicize its entire record of appointments.

By surveying the list of ICSID appointments, I seek to operationalize the basic characteristics of the social structure of international arbitrators.  Anticipating some reactions, I must admit that this is an imperfect alternative. Ideally we would have more information about international arbitration appointments generally. But given the shared characteristics between general international arbitration and the more specific field of investor-state arbitration, I argue that ICSID’s record of appointment can imperfectly inform this scholarly debate. So, while the article focuses on ICSID arbitrators–a group that has not escaped controversy in recent years–my point is more general and tries to speak to a broader scholarly debate.

Applying network analytics (and some basic statistical analysis) to ICSID’s record of appointment, I confirm what we already knew: a few, socially prominent actors are dominant in the field. But not all arbitrators are equal; hence there are different sources of social capital. Read the rest of this entry…

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Discussion of Sergio Puig’s “Social Capital in the Arbitration Market”

Published on September 22, 2014        Author: 

Over the next few days, we will be hosting a discussion of Sergio Puig’s article Social Capital in the Arbitration Market, which was published in volume 25, no. 2 of the European Journal of International Law (2014). Sergio is an Associate Professor of Law at the University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law.  The commentaries on his article will be by Daphna Kapeliuk (Radzyner Law School, IDC Herzliya), Thomas Schultz (King’s College London), and Michael Waibel (Cambridge). We are grateful to all of them for participating in the discussion.

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New Issue of EJIL (Vol. 25: No. 2) Published

Published on August 1, 2014        Author: 

The latest issue of the European Journal of International Law (Vol. 25, No. 2) is out today. As usual, the table of contents of the new issue is available at EJIL’s own website, where readers can also access those articles that are freely available without subscription. The free access article in this issue is Sergio Puig’s Social Capital in the Arbitration Market. Next week, we will continue this issue’s EJIL:Debate! with a rejoinder by László Blutman to Guzman and Hsiang’s reply to his essay Conceptual Confusion and Methodological Deficiencies: Some Ways That Theories on Customary International Law Fail. In September, we will hold a discussion of Puig’s article. Subscribers have full access to the latest issue of the journal at EJIL’s Oxford University Press site. Apart from articles published in the last 12 months, EJIL articles are freely available on the EJIL website.

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Fateful Elections? Investing in the Future of Europe

Published on July 31, 2014        Author: 

In an earlier Editorial I speculated on the potential transformative effect that the 2014 elections to the European Parliament might have on the democratic fortunes of Europe. I spoke of promise and risk. So now the results are out. How should we evaluate them?

I will address the three most conspicuous features of the recent elections – the anti-European vote, the continued phenomenon of absenteeism, and the innovation of the Spitzenkandidaten.

The Anti-European Vote and the I-don’t-Care-About-Europe Vote

The fathers have eaten sour grapes and the children’s teeth shall be set on edge.

In trying to explain the large anti-European vote (winners in France and the UK as well as some smaller Member States of the Union), much has been made of the effect of the economic crisis. Sure, it has been an important factor but it should not be used as an excuse for Europe to stick its head in the sand, ostrich-like, once more. The writing has been on the wall for a while.

In 2005 the constitutional project came to a screeching halt when it was rejected in a French referendum by a margin of 55% to 45% on a turnout of 69%. The Dutch rejected the Constitution by a margin of 61% to 39% on a turnout of 62%. (The Spanish referendum which approved the Constitution by 76% to 24% had a turnout of a mere 43%, way below normal electoral practice in Spain – hardly a sign of great enthusiasm.) I think it is widely accepted that had there been more referenda (rather than Ceausescian majority votes in national parliaments) there would have been more rejections, especially if the French and Dutch peoples had spoken at the beginning of the process.

It is also widely accepted that the French and Dutch rejections and the more widespread sentiment for which they were merely the clamorous expression were ‘a-specific’: they did not reflect dissatisfaction with any concrete feature of the ‘Constitution’ but expressed a more generic, inchoate, inarticulate unease, lack of enthusiasm not only for ‘more Europe’ but for Europe as it had become.

This early and less pathological ‘anti-European’ manifestation could not be explained away as a reaction to ‘the crisis’ – it occurred at a moment of prosperity and reasonably high employment. Europe was also riding high in the world, a promising contrast with America at its post-Iraq worst. Xenophobia was less à la mode and the immigrant issue less galvanizing – the supposed ‘invasion from the East’ was not a real issue. Europe was not ‘blamed’ for anything in particular, but it was clear that it had largely lost its mobilizing force. Read the rest of this entry…

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Masthead Changes

Published on July 30, 2014        Author: 

The time has come to renew our Board of Editors and Scientific Advisory Board. We thank Iain Scobbie for his valuable service to the Journal, particularly as blog master for EJIL: Talk!, and we welcome Jean d’Aspremont and Jan Klabbers to the SAB. Dapo Akande and Anthea Roberts will now join the Board of Editors, whilst Francesco Francioni, after a number of years on the Editorial Board, will return to the SAB. We thank him for his committed and extraordinarily constructive contribution to the Journal.

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EJIL Volume 25:2–In This Issue

Published on July 29, 2014        Author: 

We are pleased to open this issue with a second entry under our new rubric, EJIL: Keynote. In this lightly revised text of her lecture to the 5th European Society of International Law Research Forum, Anne Orford traces, with characteristic elegance and insight, the changing notions of science and scientific method that have shaped the international legal profession over the past century. Her account suggests important lessons for contemporary debates regarding the profession’s relevance and ability to respond to world problems.

The next three articles in the issue illustrate the growing toolkit of methodologies for the study of international law. Sergio Puig’s study of the social structure of investor-state arbitration makes innovative use of network analytics. Sharing some of the same methodological inclinations, Grégoire Mallard provides an extraordinarily rich historical-sociological account of the formation of the nuclear non-proliferation ‘regime complex’. And Tilmann Altwicker and Oliver Diggelmann adopt a broadly social constructivist approach to analyse the techniques used to create progress narratives in international law.

This issue includes a selection of papers from the Second Annual Junior Faculty Forum for International Law, held at the University of Nottingham in May 2013. Surveying the discourse and practice of minority language rights, Moria Paz analyses the striking disparity between the rhetoric of maximal diversity-protection found in human rights treaties and the writings of scholars, on the one hand, and the much more attenuated rights that are actually recognized in the jurisprudence and practice of international human rights adjudicatory bodies, on the other. Arnulf Becker Lorca recounts a ‘pre-history’ of self-determination that highlights the role of semi-peripheral élites in converting that political concept into an international legal right. We hope to publish one or two more papers from the Second Annual Junior Faculty Forum in future issues of the Journal.

In Roaming Charges, we feature a photograph of Places of Social and Financial Crisis: Dublin 2014. Read the rest of this entry…

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New Issue of EJIL (Vol. 25: No. 2) Out This Week

Published on July 28, 2014        Author: 

The latest issue of the European Journal of International Law will be published this Friday. Over the course of the week, we will have a series of posts by Joseph Weiler – Editor in Chief of EJIL. These posts will then appear in the Editorial in the upcoming issue. Here is the Table of Contents:

Editorial 

Fateful Elections? Investing in the Future of Europe; Masthead Changes; In this Issue

EJIL: Keynote 

Anne Orford, Scientific Reason and the Discipline of International Law

Articles

Sergio Puig, Social Capital in the Arbitration Market

Oliver Diggelmann and Tilmann Altwicker, How is Progress Constructed in International Legal Scholarship?

Grégoire Mallard, Crafting the Nuclear Regime Complex (1950-1975): Dynamics of Harmonization of Opaque Treaty Rules

 New Voices: A Selection from the Second Annual Junior Faculty Forum for International Law

Moria Paz, The Tower of Babel: Human Rights and the Paradox of Language

Arnulf Becker Lorca, Petitioning the International: A ‘Pre-history’ of Self-Determination

Roaming Charges: Places of Social and Financial Crisis: Dublin 2014

 EJIL: Debate!

László Blutman, Conceptual Confusion and Methodological Deficiencies: Some Ways That Theories on Customary International Law Fail

Andrew Guzman and Jerome Hsiang, Conceptual Confusion and Methodological Deficiencies: A Reply to László Blutman

 Critical Review of International Jurisprudence

Loveday Hodson, Women’s Rights and the Periphery: CEDAW’s Optional Protocol

 Critical Review of International Governance

Wolfgang Hoffmann-Riem, The Venice Commission of the European Council – Standards and Impact

Book Reviews

Mark Mazower. Governing the World. The History of an Idea (Jochen von Bernstorff)

Monica García-Salmones Rovira. The Project of Positivism in International Law (David Roth-Isigkeit)

Carlo Focarelli, International Law as Social Construct. The Struggle for Global Justice (Lorenzo Gradoni)

Philipp Dann. The Law of Development Cooperation: A Comparative Analysis of the World Bank, the EU and Germany(Giedre Jokubauskaite)

E. Papastavridis. The Interception of Vessels on the High Seas, Contemporary Challenges to the Legal Order of the Oceans (Seline Trevisanut)

Kjetil Mujezinović Larsen, Camilla Guldahl Cooper and Gro Nystuen (eds).  Searching for a ‘Principle of Humanity’ in International Humanitarian Law (Catriona H. Cairns)

Morten Bergsmo, LING Yan (eds). State Sovereignty and International Criminal Law (Alexandre Skander Galand)

 Briefly Noted

Kevin Jon Heller and Gerry Simpson (eds). The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials (Milan Kuhli)

 The Last Page

Kim Lockwood, The Waiting Room

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Technical Problems

Published on May 28, 2014        Author: 

Dear readers,

A quick note about the rather serious technical problems we’ve been experiencing for the past week. The blog is occasionally crashing or behaving very slowly. We are aware of the problems but it has proven difficult to establish their root cause. We’re on it and hopefully we’ll manage to resolve them soon. Obviously we apologize for any inconvenience.

The editors.

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Announcing EJIL: Live!

Published on May 13, 2014        Author: 

The Editorial Board of the European Journal of International Law is delighted to announce the launch of the Journal’s official podcast, EJIL: Live! Regular episodes of EJIL: Live! will be released in both video and audio formats to coincide with the publication of each issue of the Journal, and will include a wide variety of news, reviews, and interviews with the authors of articles appearing in that issue.

The first video episode features an extended interview between the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal, Joseph Weiler, and Maria Aristodemou, whose article “A Constant Craving for Fresh Brains and a Taste for Decaffeinated Neighbours” appears in issue 25:1. The first audio episode features a shorter, edited version of the same interview, as well as conversations with the Journal’s Book Review Editor, Isabel Feichtner, and the Editors of EJIL: Talk!, Dapo Akande and Marko Milanovic.

Episodes of EJIL: Live! can be accessed, in both audio and video formats, via the EJIL website at www.ejil.org and EJIL:Talk! at www.ejiltalk.org. EJIL: Live! is also available by subscribing to our EJIL: Live! channel on YouTube for videos and our EJIL: Live! account on SoundCloud to listen to our audio podcasts. Additional, special episodes will also be released from time to time to address a range of topical issues.

Stay tuned in with EJIL: Live!

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