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Brexit: No Happy Endings

Published on April 1, 2015        Author: 

I can think of no ‘happy ending’ scenario to this unfolding saga: like malaria, it is a malaise that has nested since British accession back in 1973, and erupts from time to time, though the current eruption is potentially of fatal proportions.

One cannot overstate the damage that a full-fledged exit of Britain will inflict on the EU. The importance goes well beyond the specificities of the functioning of the Union. It will survive and continue to function, even perhaps in some respects with less engine-room screeching. But as a global presence in the world, shaping and reshaping the impact will be huge, and to the detriment of the UK, the Union and the world. And internally, though not much might change on the surface, it will at the deepest spiritual level of European integration – and make no mistake, at its core the European construct has always been more than a functional, utilitarian enterprise – the damage will be equally shattering.

There are many in Britain who are sceptical about the benefits of British membership. But if Brexit results from a referendum vote, it is quite likely that it will be an English exit majority, with the opposite outcome in Scotland – almost inevitably leading to a Scottish exit from the UK, a catastrophic result by all accounts for the UK.

This MAD-like scenario assures at least one thing – that there will be no facile poker-playing in any future negotiations, the stakes are simply too high.

Allowing Scotland a referendum on its status within the UK was, in my eyes, the best of the British mature democratic tradition. Many express doubts whether the decision (for what it is) to allow a referendum for continued EU membership would justify such accolades. It was, according to some, holding the country hostage to the internal politics of the Tories. I don’t share this view. The fact that the EU issue has remained for so long – forever – a potent part of UK politics, together with the recent impressive successes of UKIP, means, in my opinion, that at some point the people should be able to express themselves, on such a critical ontological issue, directly. Be that as it may, a referendum was promised and to withdraw it at this point would undermine even further the fortunes of the Union in the UK and would be grist to the mill of the most populist of voices. Read the rest of this entry…

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25 Years of EJIL – A Retrospective

Published on March 31, 2015        Author: 

When planning first began to launch a journal of international law with a specifically European orientation the Berlin Wall was still standing. EJIL was born in a time of intense change – the first issue was published in 1990, the year of German reunification – and, indeed, the life of the Journal tracks our post-Cold War world. Twenty-five years later we celebrate EJIL’s birthday with a Retrospective – an exhibition in which visitors can glimpse not only the evolution of the Journal and the discipline but also in many respects the last quarter century in the life of international affairs and international law.

The exhibition, available on the EJIL and OUP websites, includes a main feature and some special exhibits. We selected, chronologically, year by year, two or more articles to represent each volume. Like curators of an exhibition we combed the EJIL archive, at times marvelling at the rich choice of articles and at times anguishing over the difficult and ultimately subjective selection. We tried to choose articles that would give a flavour of the world in which they were written, the diversity of scholarly approaches which has been a hallmark of EJIL since its inception and, plain and simply, a ‘good read’ even in some cases after many years.

A number of special exhibits complete the Retrospective. The EJIL Tables of Contents have been aggregated into one chronological file, providing a fascinating account of the evolving field of international law and its community of scholars. EJIL has always had an eye for young talent and readers may well recognize some of today’s most respected scholars in their more youthful productions. The Editorials, too, have been collated into a single file, reflecting different styles and sensibilities of our various editors. Our Book Review Editor, Isabel Feichtner, selected 25 book reviews, one for each year, memorable for the book or for the review, to create another special exhibit. Finally, the Roaming Charges photos and the Last Page poems have been collated into special exhibits.

We hope you will enjoy the Retrospective and join us in a toast to another 25 years of academic excellence and innovation in EJIL.

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In this Issue

Published on March 30, 2015        Author: 

This issue opens with the first entry under our new, annual rubric, The EJIL Foreword. Taking the ongoing debate concerning the United Nations’ role in the Haitian cholera tragedy as his starting point, Jan Klabbers presents a masterly tour d’horizon of the intellectual origins, current state, and future prospects of the law of international organizations. In the process, he reconstructs – and exposes the blind spots and biases – of a functionalist theory that he identifies as specific to and underlying that law.

In the next article in the issue, Janina Dill presents a novel framework for understanding the different set of demands made on states in war. Identifying ‘three logics of waging war’ – associated respectively with international humanitarian law, military strategy, and an individual rights-based morality – she concludes that the three cannot be reconciled, presenting war-making states with an irresolvable ‘trilemma’. On a related topic, but adopting a very different approach, Amanda Alexander presents a new and revisionist history of international humanitarian law, locating its origins in the work of a particular set of actors from the 1970s onwards. Bart Smit Duijzentkunst and Sophia Dawkins, draw from relational contract theory to construct an innovative model of arbitration in peace processes, and demonstrate the value of that theory and model through a set of carefully presented case studies. And Ulf Linderfalk’s short article on the perennially relevant topic of treaty interpretation adduces a series of well-chosen examples to elucidate the relationship between the aims and means of interpretation.

In Roaming Charges, the ‘Moment of Dignity’ is  a photograph that celebrates the small traditions we risk losing in our fast-moving world. The photographer is Martin Lestra, PhD researcher at the European University Institute. We remind our readers that submissions to Roaming Charges are welcome.

The articles section of this issue is rounded out by the return of two of our regular rubrics, EJIL: Debate! and Critical Review of International Jurisprudence, both addressing topics relating to the European Court of Human Rights. Under the first, we present Stéphanie Hennette Vauchez’s somewhat provocative article on the issue of gender balance within the Court, assessing the politics of the appointment process through a detailed analysis of the self-presentation by the 120 or so women who have applied for positions on the Court. We publish Replies by Françoise Tulkens and Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, both of whom have direct, personal experience of that process. Finally, Paolo Lobba surveys the development of the Court’s jurisprudence on Holocaust denial, which he argues has important implications for ‘denialism’ in relation to other core international crimes.
The Last Page, offering nourishment for the soul as well as the mind, presents a poem by Dimitri Van den Meerssche entitled ‘Calling Themis’.

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Vital Statistics

Published on March 30, 2015        Author: 

Here are our ‘vital stats’ for 2014. Each year we track trends in the submission and publication of unsolicited manuscripts according to criteria of gender, place of submission and language. Note that there are no special requirements for authors wishing to submit to EJIL (you don’t have to hold a PhD or have a tenured position or write with impeccable Oxford English) nor is there any editorial affirmative action in selecting manuscripts for publication. Our double-blind review process guards against that. So the statistics we present speak plainly about the submissions we receive and the manuscripts accepted for publication.

Having seen a rise in the percentage of manuscripts submitted and published by women authors in the previous two years, the figures stabilized in 2014 at 35 per cent both for submissions and accepted articles. The figure was 28 per cent for published articles (recall that published articles largely reflect submissions of the previous year). For now I regard this as a blip – I doubt it signals a trend.

We divide the world into four regions for our statistical purposes: the European Union, the Council of Europe countries outside the EU, the US and Canada, and the rest of the world. This statistic might seem a little misleading as it indicates the place of submission – normally the institution at which authors work or study, rather than their actual nationality – but overall we believe it conveys a fairly reliable picture of our authors. Of the total number of manuscripts submitted in 2014, 43 per cent came from the EU, 8 per cent from CoE countries, 25 per cent from the US and Canada and 24 per cent from the rest of the world; very similar figures to those of the previous year. For accepted and published articles, the EU took a slightly larger share of the cake, with 58 and 59 per cent of the total, respectively, whilst CoE countries claimed 5 per cent of accepted articles and a larger 15 per cent of those published. For the US and Canada, the figures were 16 per cent for accepted articles and 20 per cent for those published, whereas the rest of the world took 21 per cent of accepted articles and only 6 per cent of published articles. The 2015 ‘published’ figures will reflect the higher rate of acceptances from the rest of the world in 2014.  Read the rest of this entry…

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ICON·S Conference; EJIL on your iPad!!!

Published on March 28, 2015        Author: 

ICON·S Conference  

The second conference of the International Society of Public Law (ICON·S), around the theme of ‘Public Law in an Uncertain World’, will be held in New York, at the New York University School of Law, on 1 – 3 July, 2015. The Call for Papers and Panels is open until 10 April 2015 and more information is available on the ICON·S website.

EJIL on your iPad!!!

We have ‘gambled’ and invested considerable resources, human and material, in developing a tablet version of EJIL. We believe a tablet version represents a perfect adaptation of one of our most important identity markers to the digital age and current reading habits.

The identity marker has two facets. The first is our huge commitment to a Journal which is not only edited but ‘curated’. For each issue we pay attention not only to the individual articles but to the ensemble. We try to make, in each and every issue, the whole greater than the sum of the parts, with careful, even loving, attention given to the construction of an interesting, rich and satisfying whole. Not just something of interest to different tastes and constituencies, but a more holistic concept of what a good journal issue should be and feel like. I have habitually extolled (and cajoled) our readers to actually pick up the hard copy of EJIL to enjoy the ‘book feel’ of each issue.

The second facet is our long-standing commitment to the aesthetics of publication. It is based on the premise that beauty is an integral part of the world of the mind. A well-written article, for example, has a beauty that stands independently of the content as well as enhancing such. We all spend a huge amount of time and effort on our research and writing, and EJIL believes that the result deserves a presentation that does justice to such effort. A beautiful painting deserves a beautiful frame. If you look at the paper version of EJIL you cannot fail to notice this commitment reflected in seemingly trivial details such as the quality of paper and print. OUP has been our wonderful partner in crime in trying to achieve this.

We are, however, aware that for many the paper version is at best a (beautiful) doorstop. Hence the tablet version of EJIL – capturing both the holistic and ‘wholistic’ sense of each issue as well as its aesthetic qualities.

A tablet version is quite different to ‘going online’. The entire issue downloads onto your tablet. You can then browse and read at leisure away from your desk. If you are like me, it is likely to be on some long flight. You can leaf through the issue or click a title in the ToC and skip to it.

To be clear, the tablet version will not replace the online access that subscribers are entitled to on the OUP platform or the free access to the EJIL archives (except for the current year) on the www.ejil.org site. Rather, it will offer a new and different reading dimension.

We gambled that the tablet version will be a huge success with many of our existing subscribers and will encourage many other readers to become individual subscribers.  Make no mistake: this initiative is not driven in any way by economic considerations. The individual subscription to EJIL is among the lowest in the field, if not the lowest, and has been kept constant for years. It is practically an at-cost price. You will also note that the difference between the individual subscription rate and the cost of membership in the European Society of International Law (ESIL) is negligible. All members of the Society are offered a subscription to EJIL. So my recommendation would be to use this occasion to become a member of ESIL and enjoy all membership benefits as well as a subscription to EJIL, including access to the new tablet version!

The app will launch with this issue of the Journal. In a first phase it will be available only for Apple devices. An Android version will follow shortly.  Access to content through the app will be limited to individual subscribers and ESIL members. Subscribers should visit www.exacteditions.com/print/ejil and enter their OUP customer ID number for authentication, then simply follow the links from that page to install the app to their device. New subscribers will receive full instructions from OUP.

For those attending the ASIL meeting in April, visit the OUP stand. There will be free access to the EJIL app in the vicinity.

 Finally, although we tested a beta version for several months there are bound to be some teething problems (please be patient) and ways to improve the tablet version. Do not hesitate to write to us.

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The EJIL Annual Foreword

Published on March 27, 2015        Author: 

Starting with the present issue, we will be publishing The EJIL Foreword in the first issue of each year.

The idea, and the title, are unashamedly ‘borrowed’ (we did not ask them) from the famous Harvard Law Review Foreword. We will be inviting each year a ‘distinguished’ scholar in the field – distinguished not simply by an illustrious career, but also by having, we believe, something interesting to say – to present a ‘state of the field’ type article, permitting on an annual basis a regular ‘deep breath’ reflection on international law with a horizontal appeal to many readers.

A higher word limit, in the range of 40,000 words, will permit, we trust and hope, a more extensive analysis, synthesis, conceptualization, or systemic theorization than is usually possible in an EJIL article. Considerable licence will be given to each author to define the topic of his or her Foreword, but in principle it will be expected to:

  • define an original vision of the field, and/or
  • reflect on the state of the discipline as a whole (or a particularly pressing challenge facing it)

in light of recent events and developments in practice.

The inaugural Foreword, by Jan Klabbers, published in this issue captures, in its ambition, breadth and depth, precisely the type of piece we have in mind. We also invite readers to watch the extensive EJIL Live! conversation with Professor Klabbers concerning his Foreword.

The celebrated Hague General Courses serve in some ways a similar function to The EJIL Foreword, but both the format and size of a General Course of International Law are quite different.  Our own ambition and hope is that the Foreword will establish itself in its own way as a kind of ‘cousin’ of the General Course, an important ‘event’ on the IL intellectual calendar, and that over time the accumulation of EJIL Forewords will constitute a repository of profound reflection on international law itself and of self-reflection on the academic discipline of international law.

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Guest Editorial: Ten Years of ESIL – Reflections

From time to time, we are asked about the relationship between EJIL and the European Society of International Law (ESIL). That relationship is simple: the Journal and the Society are two separate, but mutually supportive and complementary entities. Indeed, past and present EJIL Editors can boast, with parental pride, of having been present at the conception, as well as the birth, of the Society! From its inception, membership in ESIL has included automatic online and print subscriptions to EJIL – including very soon a tablet version. The relationship has only strengthened in recent years, with ESIL Presidents and Presidents-elect serving ex officio on the EJIL Board. It is in the spirit of that growing bond that we wholeheartedly share in ESIL’s 10-year celebrations, and have invited the following Guest Editorial from its leadership.

Ten years ago, the European Society of International Law (ESIL) organized its Inaugural Conference in Florence. Some papers were later published in the Baltic Yearbook of International Law but, other than that, most presentations at the event have long been forgotten. Yet that event was one of those moments where the participants still proudly recall that they were there: yes, I was there in Florence when ESIL started, I was there when the seed was planted.

Ten years later, although ESIL has matured rapidly with the development of a wide array of activities, the Society is still in its formative stage. There is a real sense that ESIL is beginning to realize its enormous potential for understanding and influencing international law in Europe and throughout the world. But this is not a self-propelling process. On a day-to-day basis, critical choices have to be made on the directions in which the Society can and should evolve. Read the rest of this entry…

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European Hypocrisy: TTIP and ISDS

Published on January 21, 2015        Author: 

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For some, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) in and of itself has become in many European (and American) circles, the enemy: another manifestation of unchecked globalization, the march of Capital trumping social, environmental and other  rights, an unhealthy embrace of the Americans from whose clutches we have painfully managed to extricate ourselves, et cetera. Yes, there is some sarcasm or irony in the above, but visit the blogs and you will see where it comes from. My sarcasm should not be taken as a dismissal of all or any of these concerns. TTIP is far from Snow White. The concerns are not entirely fanciful. It is the final objective I oppose: a no-holds-barred attack on TTIP with the objective of tanking the whole agreement. If this is your view, do not waste your time here and skip to another item.

A wholesale defeat of TTIP, if achieved, will, I believe, be a big time Pyrrhic victory ̶ a hugely missed opportunity for the polities and the peoples of these polities.

I support the TTIP for two obvious and banal reasons. First, there is every reason to believe that on aggregate it will contribute significantly to an increase in welfare in both polities, enhance growth, contribute to stability and constitute another tool, in an embarrassingly empty toolkit, to combat future transatlantic-generated economic shocks. A large and often unspoken asset of TTIP rests not with the content of the various substantive disciplines but in establishing a culture of joint conversation, regulation and management. It will counter the litigious and confrontational culture of the WTO, where the EU and the USA find themselves typically as rivals and antagonists. Constructivist theory actually has something to say here as do the insights of Global Administrative Law scholarship. Read the rest of this entry…

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Roll of Honour and Masthead Changes

Published on January 20, 2015        Author: 

Roll of Honour

EJIL relies on the good will of colleagues in the international law community who generously devote their time and energy to act as peer reviewers for the large number of submissions we receive. Without their efforts our Journal would not be able to maintain the excellent standards to which we strive. A lion’s share of the burden is borne by members of our Boards, but of course we also turn to many colleagues in the broader community. We thank the following colleagues for their contribution to EJIL’s peer review process in 2014:

Tilmann Altwicker, Dia Anagnostou, Stelios Andreadakis, Asli Bâli, Arnulf Becker Lorca, Catherine Brölmann, Gian Luca Burci, Damian Chalmers, Cai Congyan, Kristina Daugirdas, Richard Gardiner, Lech Garlicki, Matthias Goldmann, Hans Morten Haugen, Laurence Helfer, Ian Johnstone, Alexandra Kemmerer, Jan Komárek, Dino Kritsiotis, Jürgen Kurtz, Ulf Linderfalk, David Malone, Petros Mavroidis, Frédéric Mégret, Carrie Menkel-Meadow, Joanna Mossop, Jens Ohlin, Jacqueline Peel, Cecily Rose, Arie Rosen, Nicole Roughan, Martin Scheinin, Iain Scobbie, Ingo Venzke, Steven Wheatley, Nigel White.

Masthead Changes

The growth and development of any organization, even a journal, depends on the strength of its foundations. In the case of EJIL, those foundations are represented by its Board of Editors and its Scientific Advisory Board. To maintain their strength, the EJIL Boards benefit from change and renewal. Thus, I would like to sincerely thank Anne Peters, who has stepped down from the Board of Editors, for her dedicated commitment and service to the Journal. Anne has now assumed a leadership role in the newly established Journal of the History of International Law. We wish the new journal (and Anne) every success. Thanks also go to Francesco Francioni and Hélène Ruiz Fabri who have come to the end of their term on the Board of Editors, but will continue their valuable contribution to the Journal in the Scientific Advisory Board. Dapo Akande, Anthea Roberts and the newly-elected ESIL President, André Nollkaemper, have joined the Board of Editors. Finally, we welcome Jean d’Aspremont, Jan Klabbers, Sarah Nouwen and Anne van Aaken to the Scientific Advisory Board.

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EJIL Volume 25:4–In This Issue

Published on January 20, 2015        Author: 

This issue opens with a short, reflective article by Jochen von Bernstorff on the proper role of international legal scholarship. Recapitulating themes and concerns sounded in other articles published earlier in this volume – see, especially, Anne Orford’s ‘Keynote’ and the article by Tilmann Altwicker and Oliver Diggelmann, both in issue 2 – von Bernstorff points to the problematic legacies of positivist 19th-century legal thought and argues that scholarship has the potential to act as a ‘cooling medium’ for international law and politics. In the next article in the issue, Kristina Daugirdas makes a not-dissimilar case for the importance of the Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations. Taking the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti as a case study, Daugirdas argues that the Articles may turn out to provide a useful focal point for ‘transnational discourse’ among states and non-state actors about the compliance of international organizations with international law, thereby ultimately accruing to their legitimacy and effectiveness.

Our third article, by Richard Bellamy, continues with the theme of the legitimacy of international organizations. Bellamy takes on political constitutionalist objections that international human rights courts, such as the European Court of Human Rights, lack democratic legitimacy. Rather than reject the premises of those objections he shows how an argument consistent with those premises may be constructed in favour of the European Court of Human Rights. The fourth article in this issue also relates political philosophy to international law. In his article, Oisin Suttle bridges the gap between global justice theory and international economic law, developing a typology of international coercion that promises to illuminate a variety of problems and positions in the regulation of international trade. Look out for the EJIL: Live! interview with Oisin Suttle in which we discuss some of the issues raised by this stimulating article.

Under our regular EJIL: Debate! rubric, Lorand Bartels brings us back to the legal obligations of international organizations. Bartels’ article considers the human rights obligations imposed on the European Union under EU law, in particular in relation to the extraterritorial effects of EU policy measures; and Enzo Cannizzaro provides a thoughtful Reply. The debate will continue on EJIL: Talk! with a Rejoinder by Lorand Bartels to Enzo Cannizzaro. Readers are invited to join the discussion there.

Read the rest of this entry…

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